Anatomy & Physiology

Javed A, Lteif A. Development of the Human Breast. Semin Plast Surg. 2013; 27(1):5D12.

[Smithuis R, Pijnappel R. 2008, May 11. Radiology Assistant. Breast calcifications: differential diagnosis. Retreived from]

Guinebretiere JM, Menet E, Tardivon A, et al. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis. Eur J Radiol. 2005; 54(1):6-14.

Breast Cysts, Fibroadenomas, Mastitis/Abscess, Fat necrosis, PASH, Hamartoma, Lipoma, Galactocele, ADH, LN, Intraductal Papilloma, Radial Scar

Sabel MS. 2015, Mar 8. Uptodate. Overview of benign breast disease. Retreived from

Fat Necrosis

Knipe H, Jones J, et al. 2016, May 14. Radiopaedia. Fat necrosis in the breast. Retreived at


Braunstein GD. 2014, Jun 30. Uptodate. Clinical features, diagnosis, and evaluation of gynecomastia. Retreived from

Appelbaum AH, Evans GF, Levy KR, et al.Mammographic appearances of male breast disease. Radiographics. 1999; 19(3):559-68.

Lobular Neoplasia (LN)

Oppong BA, King TA. Recommendations for women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Oncology. 2011; 25(11):1051-6, 1058.

Complex Cysts

Doshi, DJ, March DE, Crisi GM, et al. Complex cystic breast masses: diagnostic approach and imaging pathologic correlation. RadioGraphics. 2007; 27:S53-S64.

Intraductal Papilloma

Kang, O. 2016, Jun 11. Radiopaedia. Intraductal papilloma of breast. Retreived from

Radial Scar

Mario J, Venkataraman S, Dialani V, et al. Benign breast lesions that mimic cancer: Determining radiologic-pathologic concordance. Appl Radiol. 2015; 44(9):28-32.

Breast Cancer Epidemiology, and Risk Factors

NIH/National Cancer Institute: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. 2016. SEER Stat fact sheets: female breast cancer. Retreived from

Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2011; 61(2):69-90.

ACS. 2016, May 4. What are te risk factors for breast cancer? Retreived from

USPSTF: 2013, Dec. Final recommendation statement BRCA-related cancer: risk assessment, genetic counseling and genetic testing. Retreived from